Psychology and the Human Dilemma | BYU StudiesDifferent methods to elicit risk attitudes of individuals often provide differing results despite a common theory. Reasons for such inconsistencies may be the different influence of underlying factors in risk-taking decisions. In order to evaluate this conjecture, a better understanding of underlying factors across methods and decision contexts is desirable. In this paper we study the difference in result of two different risk elicitation methods by linking estimates of risk attitudes to gender, age, and personality traits, which have been shown to be related. We also investigate the role of these factors during decision-making in a dilemma situation. For these two decision contexts we also investigate the decision-maker's physiological state during the decision, measured by heart rate variability HRV , which we use as an indicator of emotional involvement.
The Role of Psychological and Physiological Factors in Decision Making under Risk and in a Dilemma
Rollo May introduced existentialism to American psychologists, and has remained the best known proponent of this approach in America. Trained in a fairly traditional format as a psychoanalyst, May considered the detachment with which psychoanalysts approached their patients as a violation of social ethics. For example, if a psychoanalyst helps a patient to be the best they can be, and the person happens to earn their living in an unseemly or criminal way, it hardly seems proper Stagner, On the other hand, who is to decide which values should be preferred in a particular society? In the pursuit of freedom, May suggested that sometimes individuals might reasonably oppose the standards or morality of their society. Politics, a wonderful topic for lively debates, is dependent on opposing viewpoints. Only when an individual lives an authentic life, however, should their opinion be considered valid, and existential psychology seeks to help individuals live authentic lives.
John E Blundell, What foods do people habitually eat? If humans represent the most intelligent form of life on this planet, why is it that they find it so difficult to make the apparently small adjustments in daily behavior that we calculate would halt the continuing rise in obesity? Is a highly developed intellect useless in the presence of a permissive biological system and a provocative environment structured on consumerism? Moreover, why is it so difficult for humans to accurately record the food items they consume daily? Why have scientists found it impossible to develop a method that allows people unambiguously and accurately to reveal their habitual energy and nutrient intakes?
By Saul McLeod , updated Erikson maintained that personality develops in a predetermined order through eight stages of psychosocial development, from infancy to adulthood. During each stage, the person experiences a psychosocial crisis which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality development. For Erikson , , these crises are of a psychosocial nature because they involve psychological needs of the individual i. Failure to successfully complete a stage can result in a reduced ability to complete further stages and therefore a more unhealthy personality and sense of self.
The hedgehog's dilemma , or sometimes the porcupine dilemma , is a metaphor about the challenges of human intimacy. It describes a situation in which a group of hedgehogs seek to move close to one another to share heat during cold weather.
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The fourteen chapters which comprise this book are, in fact, a series of separate essays which have their origins in lectures, articles, etc. These are grouped into four major sections: 1 our contemporary situation, 2 sources of anxiety, 3 psychotherapy, and 4 freedom and responsibility. There is no index, and the only bibliography is in the form of a section at the end of each chapter called "notes," where several references are listed with a few of the author's comments.
The human condition is "the characteristics, key events, and situations which compose the essentials of human existence , such as birth, growth, emotionality, aspiration, conflict, and mortality". As a literary term , "the human condition" is typically used in the context of ambiguous subjects such as the meaning of life or moral concerns. Each major religion has definitive beliefs regarding the human condition. For example, Buddhism teaches that life is a perpetual cycle of suffering , death, and rebirth from which humans can be liberated via the Noble Eightfold Path. Meanwhile, many Christians believe that humans are born in a sinful condition and are doomed in the afterlife unless they receive salvation through Jesus Christ. Philosophers have provided many perspectives.