On Liberty - WikipediaPublished in , it applies Mill's ethical system of utilitarianism to society and state. He emphasizes the importance of individuality , which he considers prerequisite to the higher pleasures—the summum bonum of utilitarianism. Furthermore, Mill asserts that democratic ideals may result in the tyranny of the majority. Among the standards proposed are Mill's three basic liberties of individuals, his three legitimate objections to government intervention, and his two maxims regarding the relationship of the individual to society. On Liberty was a greatly influential and well-received work.
Utilitarianism and Other Essays
One of the most important nineteenth-century schools of thought, Utilitarianism propounds the view that the value or rightness of an action rests in how well it promotes the welfare of those affected by it, aiming for 'the greatest happiness of the greatest number'. Jeremy Bentham was the movement's founder, as much a social reformer as a philosopher. His greatest interpreter, John Stuart Mill , set out to humanize Bentham's pragmatic Utilitarianism by balancing the claims of reason and the imagination, individuality and social well-being in essays such as 'Bentham', 'Coleridge' and, above all, Utilitarianism. The works by Bentham and Mill collected in this volume show the creation and development of a system of ethics that has had an enduring influence on moral philosophy and legislative policy. John Stuart Mill - 73 formed the Utilitarian Society which met to read and discuss essays. Jeremy Bentham - set out to theorize a simple and equitable legal system.
Utilitarianism is a philosophical defence of utilitarianism in ethics. The essay first appeared as a series of three articles published in Fraser's Magazine in ; the articles were collected and reprinted as a single book in It went through four editions during Mill's lifetime with minor additions and revisions. Although Mill includes discussions of utilitarian ethical principles in other works such as On Liberty and The Subjection of Women, Utilitarianism contains Mill's only major discussion of the fundamental grounds for utilitarian ethical theory. THERE ARE few circumstances among those which make up the present condition of human knowledge, more unlike what might have been expected, or more significant of the backward state in which speculation on the most important subjects still lingers, than the little progress which has been made in the decision of the controversy respecting the criterion of right and wrong. From the dawn of philosophy, the question concerning the summum bonum, or, what is the same thing, concerning the foundation of morality, has been accounted the main problem in speculative thought, has occupied the most gifted intellects, and divided them into sects and schools, carrying on a vigorous warfare against one another. And after more than two thousand years the same discussions continue, philosophers are still ranged under the same contending banners, and neither thinkers nor mankind at large seem nearer to being unanimous on the subject, than when the youth Socrates listened to the old Protagoras, and asserted if Plato's dialogue be grounded on a real conversation the theory of utilitarianism against the popular morality of the so-called sophist.
John Stuart Mill political thought - दर्शनशास्त्र - Philosophy optional for UPSC in Hindi
Mill's Utilitarianism in Focus 1 Utilitarianism contains two essential components: a an axiology, i. As far as philosophical theories go, John Stuart Mill's utilitarianism and. Kantian theory could not be any more opposite. While the former is a consequentialist position, focused solely on the outcomes of an action, Kant is only concerned with the reasons, or will, of an action, regardless of the outcome. Hill, Jr. The Blackwell Guide to According to the ethical theory of Utilitarianism, to do good is to "always perform that act, of those available, that will bring the most happiness or the least unhappiness.