The Not So Peaceful Civilization: A Review of Maya War | SpringerLinkUse the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. A bstract. From B. Their civilization reached intellectual heights unique in the Western Hemisphere. What conditions caused its decline and fall?
The Rise and Fall of Maya Civilization
Journal of World Prehistory. The first Maya encountered by Europeans in the early sixteenth century were exceedingly warlike, but by the s the earlier Classic Maya AD — were widely perceived as an inordinately peaceful civilization. Today, in sharp contrast, conflict is seen as integral to Maya society throughout its history. This paper defines war, reviews the evidence for it in the Maya archaeological record, and shows how and why our ideas have changed so profoundly. The main emphasis is on the Classic period, with patterns of ethnohistorically documented war serving as a baseline. Topics include the culture history of conflict, strategy and tactics, the scope and range of operations, war and the political economy, and the intense status rivalry war of the eighth and ninth centuries AD that contributed to the collapse of Classic civilization. Unresolved issues such as the motivations for war, its ritual vs.
The Rise and Fall of. Maya Civilization. By RAYMOND E. CRIST and Louis A. PAGANINI. ABSTRACT. 'Savages,' as Europeans considered the Americans of an-.
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Author contributions: C., The Maya civilization developed in an area that encompasses southeastern Mexico , all of Guatemala and Belize , and the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador.
Author contributions: P. The Terminal Classic decline of the Maya civilization represents a key example of ancient societal collapse that may have been caused by climate change, but there are inconsistencies between paleoclimate and archaeological evidence regarding the spatial distribution of droughts and sociopolitical disintegration. We conducted a new analysis of regional drought intensity that shows drought was most severe in the region with the strongest societal collapse. We also found that an earlier drought interval coincided with agricultural intensification, suggesting that the ancient Maya adapted to previous episodes of climate drying, but could not cope with the more extreme droughts of the Terminal Classic. Evidence for drought largely derives from the drier, less populated northern Maya Lowlands but does not explain more pronounced and earlier societal disruption in the relatively humid southern Maya Lowlands. Here we apply hydrogen and carbon isotope compositions of plant wax lipids in two lake sediment cores to assess changes in water availability and land use in both the northern and southern Maya lowlands. We show that relatively more intense drying occurred in the southern lowlands than in the northern lowlands during the Terminal Classic period, consistent with earlier and more persistent societal decline in the south.