# Electromagnetic fields and waves pdf

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## Electromagnetic wave equation - Wikipedia

Exposure to electromagnetic fields is not a new phenomenon. However, during the 20th century, environmental exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields has been steadily increasing as growing electricity demand, ever-advancing technologies and changes in social behaviour have created more and more artificial sources. Everyone is exposed to a complex mix of weak electric and magnetic fields, both at home and at work, from the generation and transmission of electricity, domestic appliances and industrial equipment, to telecommunications and broadcasting. Tiny electrical currents exist in the human body due to the chemical reactions that occur as part of the normal bodily functions, even in the absence of external electric fields. For example, nerves relay signals by transmitting electric impulses. Most biochemical reactions from digestion to brain activities go along with the rearrangement of charged particles.
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## Maxwell, The history of Electromagnetism - Documentary

The method of lines is a very accurate and powerful way to analyze electromagnetic waves, enabling a full-wave solution without the computational burden of pure finite element or finite difference methods.

## What are electromagnetic fields?

Vector Analysis and Electromagnetic Fields in Free Space The introduction of vector analysis as an important branch of mathematics dates back to the midnineteenth century. Since then, it has developed into an essential tool for the physical scientist and engineer. The object of the treatment of vector analysis as given in the first two chapters is to serve the needs of the remainder of this book. In this chapter, attention is confined to the scalar and vector products as well as to certain integrals involving vectors. This provides a groundwork for the Lorentz force effects defining the electric and magnetic fields and for the Maxwell integral relationships among these fields and their chargc and current sources. The coordinate systems em- ployed are confined to the common rectangular, circular cylindrical, and spherical systems.

The electromagnetic wave equation is a second-order partial differential equation that describes the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a medium or in a vacuum.
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