Download Loudspeaker And Headphone Handbook, Third Edition
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Loudspeaker Handbook pp Cite as. The vast majority of loudspeaker systems sold today make use of sealed or simple ported low frequency enclosures. The primary purpose of the enclosure is to act as a baffle, preventing back radiation of the driver from directly cancelling the front radiation. The enclosure may be sealed, in which case there is no interaction between the front and back of the driver; or it may be ported, in which case there may be significant beneficial interaction between front and back. By way of terminology, ported systems are also referred to as phase inverting and bass reflex systems.
The situation is even worse for headphones, with manufacturers quoting figures like '4Hz to 22kHz' for headphones that are far from flat and often as much as 20 to 30dB down at 4Hz ". For other devices in the transmission chain A loudspeaker is required to produce a flat sound-pressure level response at a distance of typically 1 m. A listener in front of the loudspeaker distorts the SPL by diffraction, so that his ear signals no longer show a flat response. However, this need not concern the loudspeaker manufacturer, since the listener would also have disturbed the sound field at the live performance in the same manner.