Philosophy of Religion | Internet Encyclopedia of PhilosophyHantu is the Malay and Indonesian word for spirit or ghost. Cognates in other Austronesian languages include the Micronesian aniti , Nage nitu , Tao anito , Taivoan alid , Seediq and Atayal utux , Bunun hanitu or hanidu , Polynesian aitu or atua , and Tsou hicu among Taiwanese aborigines. Aside from generic spirits of the dead, there exist various forms of hantu including both the benign and malevolent. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Types [ edit ] Aside from generic spirits of the dead, there exist various forms of hantu including both the benign and malevolent.
Encyclopedia of Demons in World Religions and Cultures
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Intermediate beings between the sacred and profane realms assume various forms in the religions of the world: celestial and atmospheric beings; devils, demons, and evil spirits; ghosts, ghouls, and goblins; and nature spirits and fairies. In the Western religions, which are monotheistic and view the cosmos as a tripartite universe, angels and demons are generally conceived as celestial or atmospheric spirits. In the popular piety of these religions, however, there is a widespread belief in ghosts, ghouls, goblins, demons, and evil spirits that influence humans in their terrestrial condition and activities. The celestial beings may be either benevolent or malevolent, depending on their own relationship to the Supreme Being. On the other hand, the demons and evil spirits that generally influence humans in their role as terrestrial beings rather than in their destiny as supraterrestrial beings are viewed in popular piety—and somewhat in theological reflection—as malevolent in intent. Angels are generally grouped in orders of four, six, or seven in the first ranks, of which there may be several.
Includes bibliographical references p. ISBN softcover : acid free paper 1. Religions Encyclopedias. B All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. On the cover: left to right, top row Caravaggios Medusa, ; Devil illustration from the Codex Gigas, folio recto, 3th century; Mongolian ritual mask, 97; bottom row woodcut of devil and woman on horseback from the Nuremberg Chronicle, ; Japanese netsuke mask of Hannya, 8th century; watercolor of Ravana from Sri Lanka, Manufactured in the United States of America. Preface As a writer, editor, and compiler of myths, it is my goal to contribute to the academic studies in the elds of anthropology, folklore, mythology, and religion.
This exhaustive volume catalogs nearly three thousand demons in the mythologies and lore of virtually every ancient society and most religions. From Aamon, the demon of life and reproduction with the head of a serpent and the body of a wolf in Christian demonology, to Zu, the half-man, half-bird personification of the southern wind and thunder clouds in Sumero-Akkadian mythology, entries offer descriptions of each demon's origins, appearance and cultural significance. Also included are descriptions of the demonic and diabolical members making up the hierarchy of Hell and the numerous species of demons that, according to various folklores, mythologies, and religions, populate the earth and plague mankind. Very thoroughly indexed. Log In. New Account or Log In. Hide my password.
The word indigenous refers to anything that is native to a particular geographical region. This includes people, cultures, languages, or species of plants or animals. The Aborigines of Australia, for example, are an indigenous people, in contrast to the European settlers who arrived on the continent long after. Similarly, American Indians are the indigenous peoples of North America. A synonym often used for indigenous is "native," but the word native in connection with peoples and their cultures is potentially offensive. It could be considered a stereotype, suggesting that they are primitive or backward.