Role of Geotechnical Properties of Soil on Civil Engineering StructuresAll Rights Reserved. The occurrence and distribution of soils in nature varies from location to location. The type of soil depends on the rock type, its mineral constituents and the climatic regime of the area. Soils are used as construction materials or the civil engineering structures are founded in or on the surface of the earth. Geotechnical properties of soils influence the stability of civil engineering structures.
Engineering Properties of Soils and Their Measurement by Joseph H. Bowles [Third Edition]
Foundation Engineering Handbook pp Cite as. Such materials are natural systems that are normally composed of solid, liquid, and gaseous phases. The solid phases are contributed by particulate matter of inorganic or organic character. The liquid phase is usually an aqueous electrolyte solution. The gaseous phase in contact and exchange with the atmosphere may have a different composition from the latter, depending on location and biologic activity within the soil. Since water and air content vary with variation in environmental conditions, soils are normally characterized by their particulate components, while the air and water contents are considered together as porosity. However, in assaying the actual physical properties of a soil system, due consideration must be given to the volume percentages of the component phases as well as to the distribution of the different phases throughout the system.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter , minerals , gases , liquids , and organisms that together support life. Earth 's body of soil, called the pedosphere , has four important functions :. The pedosphere interfaces with the lithosphere , the hydrosphere , the atmosphere , and the biosphere. Soil is a product of several factors: the influence of climate , relief elevation, orientation, and slope of terrain , organisms, and the soil's parent materials original minerals interacting over time. Given its complexity and strong internal connectedness , soil ecologists regard soil as an ecosystem. Most soils have a dry bulk density density of soil taking into account voids when dry between 1.