Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Heart | SpringerLinkSkip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Heart. Front Matter Pages i-xv. Front Matter Pages Ultrastructure of Mammalian Cardiac Muscle.
Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Heart
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The heart is one of the most demanding organs of the human body. The high nutrient and oxygen demands need to be met through an adequate vascularization of the myocardium. In fact, the myocardium vascular supply is achieved through an extensive vascular network that includes larger arteries, also known as coronary arteries, smaller arteries arterioles and capillaries. This set of arterioles and capillaries is known as microcirculation. Coronary artery disease is usually associated with larger epicardial coronary arteries. However, several studies have shown an important role of coronary microvascular dysfunction. This review aimed to explore the a morphology, with particular interest on the anatomical and histological aspects; b physiology, providing an insight on the several endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent regulatory mechanisms; and c pathophysiology of the cardiac microcirculation, with a special focus on the changes in the regulatory mechanisms, on the atherogenesis and on the correlation to the systemic cardiovascular disease.
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Cardiac physiology or heart function is the study of healthy, unimpaired function of the heart : involving blood flow; myocardium structure; the electrical conduction system of the heart; the cardiac cycle and cardiac output and how these interact and depend on one another. The heart functions as a pump and acts as a double pump in the cardiovascular system to provide a continuous circulation of blood throughout the body. This circulation includes the systemic circulation and the pulmonary circulation. Both circuits transport blood but they can also be seen in terms of the gases they carry. The pulmonary circulation collects oxygen from the lungs and delivers carbon dioxide for exhalation. The systemic circuit transports oxygen to the body and returns relatively de-oxygenated blood and carbon dioxide to the pulmonary circuit. Blood flows through the heart in one direction, from the atria to the ventricles, and out through the pulmonary artery into the pulmonary circulation, and the aorta into the systemic circulation.
How does the heart work? What does it do? What is it composed of? How do you examine it? This article offers cardiac anatomy and physiology in a nutshell. The heart is a complex organ that pumps blood through the body with an intricate system of muscle layers, chambers, valves and nodes.
NCBI Bookshelf. Rob Oberman ; Abhishek Bhardwaj. Authors Rob Oberman 1 ; Abhishek Bhardwaj 2. It is important to understand how cardiac physiology is intertwined with other organ systems and how pathophysiology relates back to simple gross physiology. Cardiac physiology is one of the most important pieces of medical knowledge in healthcare.