John Bowlby | Maternal Deprivation Theory | Simply PsychologyAttachment theory is focused on the relationships and bonds between people, particularly long-term relationships, including those between a parent and child and between romantic partners. British psychologist John Bowlby was the first attachment theorist, describing attachment as a "lasting psychological connectedness between human beings. Bowlby was interested in understanding the separation anxiety and distress that children experience when separated from their primary caregivers. Some of the earliest behavioral theories suggested that attachment was simply a learned behavior. These theories proposed that attachment was merely the result of the feeding relationship between the child and the caregiver. Because the caregiver feeds the child and provides nourishment, the child becomes attached. What Bowlby observed is that even feedings did not diminish the anxiety experienced by children when they were separated from their primary caregivers.
Bowlby's Theory - Attachment
The purpose of this review is to present the basic concepts of attachment theory and temperament traits and to discuss the integration of these concepts into parenting practices. Attachment is a basic human need for a close and intimate relationship between infants and their caregivers. Responsive and contingent parenting produces securely attached children who show more curiosity, self-reliance, and independence.
Bowlby's Attachment Theory
By Saul McLeod , updated Feb 05, Attachment is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space Ainsworth, ; Bowlby, Attachment does not have to be reciprocal. One person may have an attachment to an individual which is not shared. Attachment is characterized by specific behaviors in children, such as seeking proximity to the attachment figure when upset or threatened Bowlby, Such behavior appears universal across cultures. Attachment theory explains how the parent-child relationship emerges and influences subsequent development.
By Saul McLeod , updated John Bowlby - was a psychoanalyst like Freud and believed that mental health and behavioral problems could be attributed to early childhood. Lorenz showed that attachment was innate in young ducklings and therefore has a survival value. Bowlby believed that attachment behaviors are instinctive and will be activated by any conditions that seem to threaten the achievement of proximity, such as separation, insecurity, and fear. Bowlby , also postulated that the fear of strangers represents an important survival mechanism, built in by nature. Babies are born with the tendency to display certain innate behaviors called social releasers which help ensure proximity and contact with the mother or attachment figure e. During the evolution of the human species, it would have been the babies who stayed close to their mothers that would have survived to have children of their own.