Effective and appropriate pedagogy | Unesco IIEP Learning PortalLearning is dependent on the pedagogical approaches teachers use in the classroom. A variety of pedagogical approaches are common in schools, but some strategies are more effective and appropriate than others. The effectiveness of pedagogy often depends on the particular subject matter to be taught, on understanding the diverse needs of different learners, and on adapting to the on-the-ground conditions in the classroom and the surrounding context. In general, the best teachers believe in the capacity of their students to learn, and carefully utilize a range of pedagogical approaches to ensure this learning occurs. Pedagogical approaches are often placed on a spectrum from teacher-centred to learner-centred pedagogy; though these two approaches may seem contradictory, they can often complement each other in the realisation of educational goals—for example, a teacher-centred approach may be useful to introduce a new theme, while a learner-centred approach may be necessary to allow students to explore these ideas and develop a deeper understanding.
In the twenty-first century, significant changes are occurring related to new scientific discoveries, informatization, globalization, the development of astronautics, robotics, and artificial intelligence. This century is called the age of digital technologies and knowledge. How is the school changing in the new century? How does learning theory change? Currently, you can hear a lot of criticism that the classroom has not changed significantly compared to the last century or even like two centuries ago. Do the teachers succeed in modern changes? The purpose of the chapter is to summarize the current changes in didactics for the use of innovative teaching methods and study the understanding of changes by teachers.
Kazakhstan is currently undergoing major educational reform in seeking to adopt a more international model of education. One of the keys areas identified for modernisation has been the school curriculum whereby the enhancement of primary and secondary curriculum has been extensively discussed in most strategic policy documents and analytical reports OECD, ; NUGSE, ; World Bank, National aims are to be met through the implementation of a new, more integrated curriculum in secondary schools that is based on an adaption of that previously trialled in elite schools in Kazakhstan. These changes to the curriculum will operate in conjunction with new textbooks and professional development courses to support the reform. As preparation to the new curriculum and associated change in practices becoming nationwide for Grade 1 as of September , this research follows its roll-out in 30 state pilot schools.