Human labor and birth pdf

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human labor and birth pdf

Oxorn-Foote Human Labor & Birth, 6e | AccessObGyn | McGraw-Hill Medical

Labour is the process of passage of the foetus and placenta from the uterus , through the vagina , to be external to the mother. It is part of the process of parturition , which refers to labour, delivery and birth. Parturition requires the dilation of the cervical canal to accommodate for the passage of the foetus, as well as contractions of the uterine muscle wall that are strong enough to expel the foetus. The entire process of labour and vaginal birth takes an average of 13 hours in women giving birth for the first time, and 8 hours in women who have given birth before. However, the exact duration varies a great deal from one woman to another.
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Normal Vaginal Childbirth

The four stages of labor

During the first stage of labor, contractions help your cervix to thin and begin to open. This is called effacement and dilation. As your cervix dilates, your health care provider will measure the opening in centimeters. One centimeter is a little less than half an inch. During this stage, your cervix will widen to about 10 centimeters. This first stage of labor usually lasts about 12 to 13 hours for a first baby, and 7 to 8 hours for a second child. Your cervix opens to 4 centimeters.

You and your baby are born with the ability to start labor, labor and give birth, breastfeed and become deeply attached to each other. The flow of hormones in your body drives these well-organized, finely tuned processes. It is important that you and your maternity care providers understand how to work with — and avoid disrupting — these processes. Your baby makes birth hormones, too. These hormones work together to guide important changes in your bodies — changes that help make labor and birth go smoothly and safely for both of you. Birth hormones help guide you and your baby in many ways, including: Getting your body ready to give birth Starting your labor contractions Preparing your baby for labor and life outside your body Telling your breasts to make milk and getting your baby ready to breastfeed.

Edition after acclaimed edition, Oxorn-Foote Human Labor & Birth has provided the most comprehensive, yet accessible overview of obstetrics available.
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When you are ready to have your baby, you'll go through labor. - Childbirth , also known as labour and delivery , is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves a woman's uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section. The most common way of childbirth is a vaginal delivery.




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  1. Oxorn-Foote Human Labor & Birth, 6e. Glenn D. Posner, Jessica Dy, Amanda Black, Griffith D. Jones. Search Textbook Autosuggest Results. Show Chapters.

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