Reading: Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y | Introduction to BusinessIn his management book, The Human Side of Enterprise , Douglas McGregor made his mark on the history of organizational management and motivational psychology when he proposed the two theories by which managers perceive employee motivation. He referred to these opposing motivational methods as Theory X and Theory Y management. Essentially, Theory X assumes that the primary source of most employee motivation is monetary, with security as a strong second. Under Theory X, management approaches to motivation range from a hard approach to a soft approach. The hard approach to motivation relies on coercion, implicit threats, micromanagement, and tight controls— essentially an environment of command and control. The soft approach, however, is to be permissive and seek harmony in the hopes that, in return, employees will cooperate when asked.
McGregor's XY Theory of Management
Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human work motivation and management. The two theories proposed by McGregor describe contrasting models of workforce motivation applied by managers in human resource management , organizational behavior , organizational communication and organizational development. Theory X explains the importance of heightened supervision, external rewards, and penalties, while Theory Y highlights the motivating role of job satisfaction and encourages workers to approach tasks without direct supervision. Management use of Theory X and Theory Y can affect employee motivation and productivity in different ways, and managers may choose to implement strategies from both theories into their practices. McGregor also believed that self-actualization was the highest level of reward for employees. McGregor's perspective places the responsibility for performance on managers as well as subordinates. Theory X is based on assumptions regarding the typical worker.
Instructional Design Toolkit. ISD Concept Map. Douglas McGregor - is one of the forefathers of management theory and one of the top business thinkers of all time. He was a social psychologist who became the President of Antioch College. He later became a professor of management at Massachusetts Institute of Technology he was succeeded by Warren Bennis.
Douglas McGregor's theory of management, often referred to as McGregor's XY theory, remains a cutting-edge management model though more than 50 years old. The Douglas McGregor biography describes one of the most influential management theorists as a man whose revolutionary insights into the nature of leadership and management changed the relationship between managers and employees, paving the way for best practices implemented by some of today's most successful companies. Theory X, the accepted model at the time, assumed that workers were drones, without ambition or initiative who had to be punished and bullied by bosses to achieve results. Drawing on newly emerging psychological principles, Douglas McGregor's Theory Y offered a different model. Work is as natural as play or rest.
Theory X & Theory Y
Douglas McGregor first proposed his famous XY Theory in to help people develop a more positive management style. Theory X - 'Authoritarian Management' Style. Characteristics of an X-theory manager. Managing an X-theory boss. Theory Y - 'Participative Management' Style. Theory Z - William Ouchi.
He also taught in IIM Calcutta. McGregor identified an approach of creating an environment within which employees are motivated via authoritative, direction and control or integration and self-control, which he called Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X is the style that predominated in business after the mechanistic system of scientific management had swept everything before it in the first few decades of the 20th century. Working for an X theory boss isn't easy - some extreme X theory managers make extremely unpleasant managers, but there are ways of managing these people upwards. Avoiding confrontation and delivering results are the key tactics. Following points should help in managing Theory X managers Theory X managers are primarily results oriented - so orientate your your own discussions and dealings with them around results - ie what you can deliver and when Theory X managers are facts and figures oriented - so cut out the incidentals, be able to measure and substantiate anything you say and do for them, especially reporting on results and activities Theory X managers generally don't understand or have an interest in the human issues, so don't try to appeal to their sense of humanity or morality.